Tuberculosis of the calcaneus in children

Agarwal, A. and Kant, K. S. and Suri, T. and Gupta, N. and Verma, I. and Shaharyar, A. (2015) Tuberculosis of the calcaneus in children J Orthop Surg, 23 (1). pp. 84-89.

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PURPOSE: To review 10 children with calcaneal tuberculosis in terms of presentation, healing, and functional outcome. METHODS: Medical records of 7 boys and 3 girls aged 7 to 12 (mean, 9.8) years who presented with calcaneal tuberculosis were reviewed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate of all patients was elevated. All patients presented with pain and swelling around the lateral malleolus and a 'heal-up' sign; 7 of them presented with an additional discharging sinus. Three patients had palpable lymph nodes in the right inguinal or left popliteal region. Symptoms had lasted for one month to 1.5 years. Two patients had healed tuberculosis in the lungs; 8 patients had no pulmonary involvement. Seven patients had a single lytic lesion in the calcaneal body (n=1), tuberosity (n=3), and extension to anterior process (n=3). Three patients had multiple lytic lesions in the calcaneum; one of them had bilateral involvement who had lesions in the phalanges, lumbar spine, and ulna. Two patients had subtalar joint involvement. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 17 (range, 8-60) months. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate returned to normal after 3 months in 7 patients and after >6 months in 3 patients. The subtalar range of movement was normal in all except for 2 patients. One patient developed subtalar ankylosis. Sinuses healed in a mean of 10 (range, 2-16) weeks. No patient had pain on level walking after treatment. At 3 months, remineralisation of bone was evident in all patients. Sclerosis of cavity margins and sequestra resorption was noted from 6 to 9 months. No patient experienced recurrence. CONCLUSION: The 'heel up' sign was common in children with calcaneal tuberculosis in this endemic region. The central granuloma-type presentation was the most common. Pathological fractures and involvement of the subtalar joint were not common. Subtalar joint involvement was a poor prognostic factor.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Calcaneus; Tuberculosis; Osteoarticular
Subjects: Tuberculosis > Clinical
Tuberculosis > Extra Pulmonary TB
Tuberculosis > Pediatric TB
Institutions: National Task Force, Zonal Task Force & State Task Force of Medical Colleges
Depositing User: Mr SANJAY SINGH
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2015 09:34
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2015 09:34

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